HVAC system types and examples
This article confirms a comparative study of the main types of air conditioning systems in existing buildings on the market, analyzing the various equipment characterized by the types of installations that we can find and distinguishing the uses of each air conditioning installation in particular.
This technology uses air treatment to control humidity, temperature, cleanliness, and distribution in interior spaces such as a room or a building.
Classification of HVAC system
Air conditioning systems are classified according to their system to take or transfer primary energy. Given the context, we shall categorize them as follows:
- System of air-to-air communication (all-air installations)
- Air-Water Flow Systems
- Water-Water systems (all-water facilities)
- Water-Air Flow Systems
When we talk about a network that uses Air-Air or Air-Water and Water-Water or Water-Air, the first term concept is based on the exchange fluid with the outdoor unit, and the second on the indoor unit. When we are supplying cold to the cabin that we want to air-condition, the medium with which the equipment is condensed is named at the beginning, that is:
- Air – Air: Exchange of air between both units in the installation.
- The installation exchange of air and water, with air in the outdoor unit and water in the internal unit.
- Water-Water: Water exchange in the installation between both units.
- Water – Air exchange: In the installation, water is exchanged in the outdoor unit, and the air is exchanged in the indoor unit.
Given this brief overview of the air conditioning system, there is a question that We may answer… Is the primary circuit connected to the indoor unit and the secondary circuit is connected to the outside? A primary fluid emerges from an exchanger and transfers heat to regulate the temperature. That fluid that causes the alteration is referred to as primary, and the modified altered is referred to as secondary.
What exactly is an Air-Air system?
You can find the most prevalent air conditioning systems in residential structures, enterprises, and even modest banking institutions.
These installations are visible in artificial ceilings and walls connected to air diffusers and ducts, with an exterior unit generally connected by insulated copper pipes to the appropriate drains. Not long ago, we could also see them installed in windows, with the external half exchanging heat.
Regarding all-air systems, those with more power can be found in various plants and depending on their normal operation. We have the following categories of air conditioning equipment.
Air-Air System Types
- Constant airflow Centrals: This installation works by bringing the same flow rate of air into the premises and adjusting the power to be given by varying the temperature at which it is delivered and the time.
- The ones in the center with variable airflow: These installations vary the quantity of energy supplied, hence changing the amount of air introduced into the passenger compartment, i.e., the flow.
As previously said, internal air-conditioning equipment accepts liquid to produce cold, expands, and in the same circuit, some operate as condensers to provide heat. Therefore, it will perform the functions of evaporator and condenser from the external unit following the requirements of all the air conditioners combined.
These home air conditioning systems also feature inverter drive compressors, which vary the rotational speed based on energy consumption (Normally portable and compact equipment does not, we can see the article on types of portable air conditioning )
In comparison to other systems and processes, electricity consumption decreases significantly, which is equivalent to the COP (We can see from the article what the COP and the inverter heat pump are), which is the thermal watts supplied divided by the watts electricity consumed, which is much higher in intermediate loads.
You should note that technology and R&D are growing at a breakneck pace, improving ways to pursue greater energy efficiency and effectiveness in equipment on various air conditioning systems.
What is an Air-Water system?
They are installations that use fluid or water as a base component to give hot or cold energy to batteries that exchange heat with the surrounding air, climatizing it. Terminal machinery can include inductors, fan coils, radiators, central air conditioners for larger installations, convectors, and so on.
But what’s the distinction between Air-Air and Air-Water equipment?
Air-Air technology does not use a water circuit to heat the air. As a result, an Air-Air unit is relatively limited. It only serves to heat the air and thus does not serve to heat sanitary hot water, but simply as heating through the expulsion of hot and cold air, if applicable. I’d like to.
Thermal power plant + Water distribution + Terminal elements + Regulation elements are the main components of an air-water conditioning unit. To see it a little better, we have some clear examples using modern equipment regarding residential from Panasonic’s section on energy efficiency, heat pumps, air conditioning, and heating:
Types of Air-water
- Constant airflow central systems Water – Air
- Variable airflow central systems Air-Water
- Central Systems with Constant Volume Multi-Zone Distribution at Various Temperatures
What is a Water-Water system?
The generation of heat or cold is based on the fact that water or a heated or cooled fluid is employed to capture or transfer heat to the fluid, either through combustion in boilers or bypassing heat from outside to the water for air conditioning.
To achieve compression cycle condensation, these installations within the types of air conditioning for buildings and equipment, also known as hydronic, will require circuits similar to cooling towers, well water, geothermal, and other comparable systems.
Identifying how a Water-Water system works could be characterized as follows: It employs the water itself as a carrier of heat or cold and a terminal unit that uses that temperature to condition a room or region. Other components, such as water chiller units, fan coils, boilers, or heat pumps, are required in these systems.
But, what is the distinction between a Water-Water team (all water) and the others mentioned?
The key difference between this technique and the previous one is that air is not required to acclimate a space.
We attain lower temperatures and are even more stable than ambient air when we employ water to condense the generating groups. When temperatures in the compression cycle are more stable, the efficiency of the installations can be greatly increased and improved.
For example, if we utilize a geothermal chiller, we can keep the temperature at 15oC (+/- 2oC) all year. In cold winter rooms, we can use ventilation air to heat them, and in summer, we can use it to pre-cool them. As a result, the energy cost is almost nothing.
What is a Water-Air system?
Water-Air installations (also known as Water-Ambient equipment) provide heat mostly through transmission and radiation. Radiation elements come in various forms, each with its own set of advantages and disadvantages.
Water-types that are most commonly encountered
- Air conditioning systems
- Radiant ceilings, and radiant floors
- Radiators and convectors